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0. Wilson, Soci(}biology (Cambridge, Mass,, 1975). See also D. T Campbell, "On the Genetics of Altruism and the Counterhedonic Components of Human Culture," Joumal ofSocia/ Issues 28 (3): 21-37 (1972). RATIONALITY AND TELEOLOGY iors rather than to specific behaviors. All that is required of these mechanisms is that they contribute on balance to individual fitness. There is no requirement that each ofthe specific behaviors they enjoin make such a contribution. As we know from the existence of social insects, there are other foundations than this one for the evolution of social dependence.

D. Colm, ]. G. March, and ]. P. " 1 Their idea is that there are permanent issues, and people permanently attached to these issues, in any society or organization. When any particular matter comes up for decision, these permanent buzzing issues descend on it and take over the debate. The organization is never deciding what it purports to be deciding. The curriculum committee's formal question is whether requiring course X or course Y would be better for some group of students. What is really debated is how requiring course X or course Y would affect the number of faculty slots in departments A and B.

14 Since the "nextbest" strains, at any given time, could be climbing different hills than the fittest, such a scheme would prevent immecliJ If we are plarming an action through conscious rational calculation, and ifwe are smart enough, we can look ahead through some period of time at least a short periodand conceive of the possible consequences of the action over that period. In principle, there are no fixed limits to the time horiwns that govern the calculation of the consequences of action. Such a look-ahead capability contrasts sharply with the mechanisms of biological evolution, which provide only a very myopic kind of rationality.

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Ancient Greek Psychology and Modern Mind-Body Debate by E. Ostenfeld

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