By Leonard Susskind
Over the past decade the physics of black holes has been revolutionized by means of advancements that grew out of Jacob Bekenstein's awareness that black holes have entropy. Steven Hawking raised profound concerns about the lack of info in black gap evaporation and the consistency of quantum mechanics in an international with gravity. for 2 many years those questions wondered theoretical physicists and finally resulted in a revolution within the means we expect approximately house, time, subject and data. This revolution has culminated in a outstanding precept known as "The Holographic Principle", that's now an important concentration of awareness in gravitational learn, quantum box thought and uncomplicated particle physics. Leonard Susskind, one of many co-inventors of the Holographic precept in addition to one of many founders of String concept, develops and explains those techniques.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Black Holes, Information And The String Theory Revolution: The Holographic Universe
As we shall see, the entropy density of the horizon is a physical quantity whose exact value is known. Nevertheless the divergence in S indicates that its value is sensitive to the ultraviolet physics at very small length scales. Further insight into the form of the entropy can be gained by recalling 1 . 22) B2 45 (2π)3 2 2 = Now we see that the entropy is mainly found near the horizon because that is where the temperature gets large. 1 Black Hole Evaporation The discovery of a temperature seen by an accelerated ﬁducial observer adds a new dimension to the equivalence principle.
7, that is it coincides with the future horizon of the ﬁnal black hole geometry and is therefore found at r = 2M G. On the other hand, the horizon also extends into the Region A where the metric is just that of ﬂat space-time. In this region the value of r on the horizon grows from an initial value r = 0 to the value r = 2M G at the shell. It is evident from this discussion that the horizon is a global and not a local concept. In the Region A no local quantity will distinguish the presence of the horizon whose occurence is due entirely to the future collapse of the shell.
22) B2 45 (2π)3 2 2 = Now we see that the entropy is mainly found near the horizon because that is where the temperature gets large. 1 Black Hole Evaporation The discovery of a temperature seen by an accelerated ﬁducial observer adds a new dimension to the equivalence principle. We can expect that identical thermal eﬀects will occur near the horizon of a very massive black hole. However, in the case of a black hole a new phenomenon can take place – evaporation. 7. The particles of the thermal atmosphere will gradually leak through the barrier and carry oﬀ energy in the form of thermal radiation.
An Introduction to Black Holes, Information And The String Theory Revolution: The Holographic Universe by Leonard Susskind