By John Krige
In 1945, the U.S. used to be not just the most powerful financial and army strength on the planet; it was once additionally the world's chief in technological know-how and expertise. In American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of technological know-how in Europe, John Krige describes the efforts of influential figures within the usa to version postwar clinical practices and associations in Western Europe on these in the US. They mobilized political and monetary aid to advertise not only America's clinical and technological agendas in Western Europe yet its chilly struggle political and ideological agendas as well.Drawing at the paintings of diplomatic and cultural historians, Krige argues that this try out at medical dominance via the usa might be obvious as a kind of "consensual hegemony," related to the collaboration of influential neighborhood elites who shared American values. He makes use of this idea to investigate a sequence of case stories that describe how the united states management, senior officials within the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, the NATO technological know-how Committee, and influential participants of the medical establishment--notably Isidor I. Rabi of Columbia collage and Vannevar Bush of MIT--tried to Americanize clinical practices in such fields as physics, molecular biology, and operations examine. He info U.S. aid for associations together with CERN, the Niels Bohr Institute, the French CNRS and its laboratories at Gif close to Paris, and the never-established "European MIT." Krige's learn indicates how consensual hegemony in technological know-how not just served the pursuits of postwar ecu reconstruction yet turned otherwise of holding American management and "making the realm secure for democracy."
Read or Download American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe (Transformations: Studies in the History of Science and Technology) PDF
Similar history & philosophy books
This article is meant to supply a contemporary and built-in remedy of the principles and purposes of continuum mechanics. there's a major bring up in curiosity in continuum mechanics due to its relevance to microscale phenomena. as well as being adapted for complicated undergraduate scholars and together with a variety of examples and routines, this article additionally contains a bankruptcy on continuum thermodynamics, together with entropy construction in Newtonian viscous fluid movement and thermoelasticity.
Checking out clinical Theories was once first released in 1984. Minnesota Archive variations makes use of electronic expertise to make long-unavailable books once more obtainable, and are released unaltered from the unique collage of Minnesota Press variations. due to the fact that a lot of a scientist's paintings comprises developing arguments to teach how experiments and remark undergo on a specific conception, the methodologies of concept trying out and their philosophical underpinnings are of significant predicament to philosophers of technology.
The first objective of this publication is to summarize the present point of amassed wisdom concerning the actual constitution of stable surfaces with emphasis on well-defined surfaces on the gas-solid and vacuum-solid interfaces. The goal is not just to supply a typical reference for practitioners, but in addition to supply a superb place to begin for scientists who're simply coming into the sphere.
Within the first 1/2 the 20 th century, supporters of the eugenics circulation provided a picture of a racially remodeled the USA by means of curbing the replica of "unfit" participants of society. via institutionalization, obligatory sterilization, the limit of immigration and marriages, and different equipment, eugenicists promised to enhance the inhabitants - a coverage schedule that used to be embraced by way of many top intellectuals and public figures.
- Before Galileo : the birth of modern science in medieval Europe
- Zero To Infinity; A History Of Numbers The Teaching Company
- The collected papers of Albert Einstein
- Pursuing the Unity of Science: Ideology and Scientific Practice from the Great War to the Cold War
Additional info for American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe (Transformations: Studies in the History of Science and Technology)
They reach their full growth when the hope for a better life has died. ”11 Given the dramatic economic situation in Western Europe in the winter of 1946–47 and the growing strength of Communist parties in some countries, it was inevitable that the president would soon extend the scope of his aid program. It was a logical consequence of his universalization of a specific threat and of his analysis of the socioeconomic roots of Communism. Indeed, in a famous memorandum of 27 May, less than three weeks after Truman’s package had been finally agreed by the House, an alarmed Undersecretary of State William Clayton wrote to Dean Acheson that an 20 Chapter 2 aid package of $6–8 billion annually for three years was needed to save a Europe that was “steadily deteriorating.
16 Marshall aid was not only conditional on coalition governments marginalizing the influence of Communist parties but was also intended to push Europeans along the path toward closer economic integration. The secretary of state implied that Europeans were to view the problem of recovery as a whole, and see what contribution each could make to the mutual benefit of all. The program, he said, “should be a joint one”; rather than come to the table with individual shopping lists, European governments should think how best to coordinate their requests.
28 The Church got involved. 5 percent of the vote (while the Communists and Socialists together had 31 percent) and the political centrists and right wing secured an absolute majority in the Chamber of Deputies. Developments in Czechoslovakia and in Italy galvanized American public opinion. The suggestion that democratic forces on the Continent were inherently weak and impotent in the face of Communist determination won over the isolationists and protectionists in the House. S. military personnel in Europe, and for increased defense spending.
American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe (Transformations: Studies in the History of Science and Technology) by John Krige