Read e-book online Air Quality in America: A Dose of Reality on Air Pollution PDF

By Joel M. Schwartz, Steven F. Hayward

ISBN-10: 0844771872

ISBN-13: 9780844771878

This publication records how a lot U.S. air caliber has more advantageous in fresh a long time and offers by means of a long way the main exact photograph on hand of constant pollution difficulties and the way to deal with them.

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Additional info for Air Quality in America: A Dose of Reality on Air Pollution Levels, Trends, and Health Risks

Sample text

Under this “VOC-limited” or “VOC-sensitive” condition, reducing VOCs reduces ozone, but reducing NOx increases ozone. 13 38 AIR QUALITY IN AMERICA During the late 1990s, EPA embarked on a policy of seeking large NOx reductions in metropolitan areas. The resulting automobile, heavy-duty diesel truck, and nonroad diesel equipment standards will eliminate more than 80 percent of metropolitan NOx emissions from motor vehicles during the next two decades or so. These upcoming NOx reductions run a serious risk of slowing or even reversing progress on ozone.

As the chart shows, sites that were added during the mid-1990s tended to be in areas with relatively low sulfate levels. These are mainly in the western half of the country. gov/castnet (accessed August 26, 2007). NOTES: There is no data point for 1996. This is due to a budget impasse that resulted in the shutdown of many federal agencies for several weeks. CASTNET was one of the affected programs, and the 1996 CASTNET data were incomplete as a result. Since sulfate levels vary by season, this makes it impossible to calculate a valid annual average for the affected monitoring sites.

This “photochemical haze” became known as smog and was composed of ozone and other irritating gases. Yet monitoring data from the 1950s and ’60s show that by 1956, ozone had already begun a steady decline that continued through the 1960s and beyond (see figure 1-3 on page 17). The ozone decline may have begun even earlier, but data are not available before 1956. AIR QUALITY TRENDS 15 FIGURE 1-1 LONG-TERM TRENDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER IN PITTSBURGH Clean Air Act Passed TSP (µg/m3) Dustfall (tons/square-mile/year) 300 Pittsburgh TSP 250 Pittsburgh Dustfall National Avg.

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Air Quality in America: A Dose of Reality on Air Pollution Levels, Trends, and Health Risks by Joel M. Schwartz, Steven F. Hayward

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