By E. Obert
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Extra info for Aerodynamic Design of Transport Aircraft
For a certain flap setting the weight-versus-field-length plots are limited by the WAT limit. 2 and has an available take-off field length of 10000 ft leading to a maximum take-off weight MTOW = 400,000 lb. 1. This then leads to a maximum take-off weight MTOW = 380,000 lb, a reduction of about 5%. This may not seem much, but an aircraft like the Boeing 767 has an empty weight fraction of 50% of the maximum take-off weight, a fuel fraction of 35% and a payload fraction of just 15%. The reduction in take-off weight reduces the payload weight to 10% of the original take-off weight.
At landing achievement of a high maximum lift coefficient is dominant but modern noise requirements limit the acceptable drag levels in the landing configuration. 10 shows the variation of (L/D)V2 with (CL)V2 for different aircraft. 11. The diagram shows how the lift-drag polar shifts up and to the right with increased flap setting: an increase in maximum lift comes with an increase in drag. 10 - Generalized take-off. Source : E. 11 - Low-speed polars for a transport aircraft 21 AERODYNAMIC DESIGN OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT The main parameters for take-off are the take-off lift coefficient CLTO, the drag coefficient and the thrust to weight ratio which gives the aircraft acceleration and determines the climb gradient.
Source : Mick Bajcar 31 AERODYNAMIC DESIGN OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT After 1940, (limited) theoretical analysis, with an emphasis on airfoils, was done by those that had “computing power” – large research institutes and airframe manufacturers. This resulted in, for example, the NACA 6-series laminar flow airfoils. With the advent of jet engines and aircraft flying near the speed of sound, a return to windtunnel experiments took place, as the computer codes of that time were not capable of handling transonic (mixed subsonic and supersonic) flow.
Aerodynamic Design of Transport Aircraft by E. Obert