By Adrian M.T. Silva and Sonia A.C. Carabineiro
Carbon atoms have the superb skill to bond in notable varied manners that may suppose distinctive magnificent dimensional preparations from which completely different and engaging nanostructured carbon fabrics are acquired. This booklet goals to hide the newest advances in (i) Graphene and derivatives, together with graphene-based magnetic composites, membranes, wafer units, and nanofibers for numerous functions, in addition to a few specific houses, comparable to gentle emission from graphene; (ii) Carbon nanotubes warmers and fibers for reinforcement of cement and diamond-based skinny motion pictures; and (iii) Nanofluids inclusive of either graphene and carbon nanotubes, except reporting a few vital case stories facing carbon nanostructures and their use in sensors, coatings, or electromagnetic wave absorbers.
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Chem. , 2015, 115(7), 2483–2531. 5772/64396 Abstract Advanced membrane systems are regarded as an important portion of controllable separation processes, such as gas separation and water purification. The ideal materials should have good permeability for selected particle sizes, high stiffness to withstand high pressures applied, large surface area and micro- or nanopore structures for excellent selectivity. Recently, graphene with oxygen-containing functional groups and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, obtained via chemical oxidation of graphite, achieved tremendous properties that include excellent mechanical strength, large relative surface area, unique honeycomb lattice two-dimensional structure as well as narrow pore distribution, offering platform to be used as advanced, ultrathin membrane for a wide variety of purification process with high efficiency.
Cohen-Tanugi and Grossman  found out that the water flux through monolayer graphene had a linear relationship with the pore area by computational meth‐ ods. They also proposed that hydrophilic pores could increase water permeation, due to Hbonding between water molecules and pore edges. Hu and Mi  fabricated a series of novel GO membranes with different numbers of layers and tested their water purification performance. These authors observed that there was no evident correlation between water flux and the number of layers of graphene.
2011, 47, 11689–11691. ; Gao, C. Supraparamagnetic, conductive, and processable multifunctional graphene nanosheets coated with high-density Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Appl. Mater. , 2010, 2(11), 3201–3210. ; Mijowska, E. Chemical and magnetic functionalization of graphene oxide as a route to enhance its biocompatibility. Nanoscale Res. , 2014, 9, 656. ; Yang, P. Facile preparation of magnetic graphene double-sided mesoporous composites for the selective enrichment and analysis of endogenous peptides.
Advances in Carbon Nanostructures by Adrian M.T. Silva and Sonia A.C. Carabineiro