Read e-book online Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology (Explorations PDF

By R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald

ISBN-10: 0199203466

ISBN-13: 9780199203468

ISBN-10: 0199270937

ISBN-13: 9780199270934

The reviews during this quantity recommend that each language has an adjective type, yet those fluctuate in personality and in measurement. In its grammatical houses, an adjective category may possibly beas just like nouns, or to verbs, or to either, or to neither.ze. while in a few languages the adjective type is huge and will be freely further to, in others it's small and closed. with only a dozen or so contributors. The booklet will curiosity students and complex scholars of language typology and of the syntax and semantics of adjectives.

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Example text

In some languages, adjectives and verbs modify a noun through a relative clause construction. In Mojave (Yuman; Schachter 1985:19), a relativizing particle is obligatory with a verb, when modifying a noun, but optional with an adjective. In Edo (Kwa group within Niger-Congo; Omoruyi 1986), both adjective and verb require a relative marker when in modifying function, but there is phonological reduction of the relative marker only in the case of adjectives. In some languages, a noun may modify a noun in two ways—either with no marker or within a relative clause—with a difference of meaning.

Dixon take case; only if there is no modifier to a noun will case attach to the noun (Palmer 1967). However, in Buriat, case goes onto the head word. If an adjective functions as modifier, it takes no case affix; if an adjective makes up a whole NP, then it does take case (Poppe 1960: 76). Note, though, that the case system for adjectives may differ in size from that for nouns. Nichols (1994: 95-9) states that in Ingush (North-east Caucasian) nouns may select from eight cases but adjectives just from two—nominative (corresponding to nominative on nouns) and oblique (corresponding to genitive, dative, ergative, instrumental, locative, comparative, and allative on nouns).

Action—expressing 'movement and various other activities'—appears to correspond to what is called 'verb' in other languages. And 'state'—expressing 'quality, condition, colour, size, position, mental state or attitude, conditions of the weather, and other notions'—is clearly to be identified as an adjective class. In summary, although both noun and verb may function as predicate or as predicate argument, there are still clearly criteria for recognising them as separate clauses. ) 4. The adjective class I here put forward the idea that, just as all languages have distinguishable classes of noun and verb, so all languages have a distinguishable adjective class.

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Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology (Explorations in Linguistic Typology) by R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald

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