By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Environment and Resources Commission on Geosciences, Panel on Atmospheric Effects of Aviation
The NRC Panel at the Atmospheric results of Aviation (PAEAN) was once tested to supply tips to NASA's Atmospheric results of Aviation application (AEAP) by means of comparing the appropriateness of the program's learn plan, appraising the project-sponsored effects relative to the present nation of medical wisdom, making a choice on key medical uncertainties, and suggesting learn actions more likely to lessen these uncertainties.
Over the previous few years, the panel has written periodic reports of either the subsonic aviation (Subsonic Assessment-SASS) and the supersonic aviation (Atmospheric results of Stratospheric Aircraft-AESA) elements of AEAP, together with: An period in-between overview of the Subsonic review venture (1997); An period in-between overview of AEAP's Emissions Characterization and Near-Field Interactions components (1997); An meantime assessment of the AESA undertaking: technology and development (1998); Atmospheric results of aviation: A assessment of NASA's Subsonic evaluate undertaking (1998). This file constitutes the ultimate assessment of AESA and may be the final file written by way of this panel. the first viewers for those reviews is this system managers and scientists affiliated with AEAP, even supposing every now and then the subjects mentioned are of curiosity to a much broader audience.
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Additional resources for A Review of NASA's 'Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft' Project
The "age" of an air parcel is defined as the average of the transit times from first entering the stratosphere for the ensemble making up the air parcel (Hall and Plumb, 1994). If the tropospheric concentration of a chemically inert species is increasing linearly with time, the age can be estimated by taking the time lag between the observation time and when the tropospheric mixing ratio was equivalent to the observed parcel mixing ratio. The age has been determined from several measurements of tracers with approximately linear trends.
To resolve this issue, accurate measurements of SO2 (with less than 20 percent uncertainty), S(VI) or SO3 or H2SO4, condensable organic species, chemi-ions, particle size distribution, and particle composition are needed, as well as better models to predict particle number densities and size distribution. Atmospheric Transport The evolution of HSCT emissions and subsequent reaction products will be controlled by both atmospheric transport and chemical processes. Cruise altitudes for HSCTs lie in the lower stratosphere, so a thorough understanding of advection and mixing in the stratosphere, and exchange of mass and constituents between the troposphere and stratosphere are needed to assess potential impacts of an HSCT fleet.
This efficiency stems from the fact that sulfuric acid has a very low equilibrium vapor pressure and a very large Gibbs free energy of mixing with water. However, binary nucleation theory is also known to break down in several conditions, including at the low temperatures found in the upper atmosphere. The evolution of the aerosol is controlled by "condensational" growth and self-coagulation (only the latter is effective on the time scales of seconds in aircraft plumes). However, the simulations based on these models have been unable to reproduce the observations made behind the Concorde (for which the calculated particle sizes remained smaller than the observed ones) or Attas (SULFUR-5 experiment), at least for the assumed conversion factor of SO2 (which is taken to be adjustable up to 45%).
A Review of NASA's 'Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft' Project by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Environment and Resources Commission on Geosciences, Panel on Atmospheric Effects of Aviation