By Bronwen Cohen, Peter Moss, Pat Petrie, Jennifer Wallace
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Additional resources for A New Deal for Children?: Re-forming Education and Care in England, Scotland and Sweden
Moreover, 13% of children attending pre-schools in 2000 did not have Swedish as a mother tongue (Swedish Children’s Ombudsman, 2001). Exact comparison with the UK is difficult because of different methods of classification: in the UK, ethnicity is self-defined, while Swedish statistics are based on children’s or parents’ country of birth. But Sweden now has a large minority ethnic population, possibly higher than England, where 9% of the population defined themselves as non-white in the 2001 Census, with a further 4% Irish or ‘other’ white non-British.
A similar trend is evident in England. For example, the English Children and Young Person’s Unit (CYPU) has now developed a set of ‘core principles of participation’ with supporting guidance (CYPU, 2001). These are to be applied across government, by all departments, and “provide a framework that government departments have agreed to work to in order to increase the effective involvement of children and young people in the design and provision of policies and services”. Also, one of the stated principles of the English government’s proposals for an overarching strategy for children and young people is empowerment:“children and young people should have opportunities to play an effective role in the design and delivery of policies and services”.
Lenz Taguchi and Munkammer, 2003, p 21) The national differences that exist today in the relationship between national government and local government are reflected in the sourcing of local government funding. The proportion of Swedish local government funding raised from local taxes is high in absolute and relative terms and has been rising in recent years: from 66% to 72% between 1990 and 1995 (Kommittén Välfärdsbokslut, 2000). A cross-national comparison in 1998 found that 80% of Swedish local government funding in 1998 came from local taxation.
A New Deal for Children?: Re-forming Education and Care in England, Scotland and Sweden by Bronwen Cohen, Peter Moss, Pat Petrie, Jennifer Wallace