Read e-book online A Functional Grammar of Dholuo PDF

By Duncan O. Okombo, M. Lionel Bender, Franz Rottland

ISBN-10: 3896451308

ISBN-13: 9783896451309

Dholuo (Luo) belongs to the Western Nilotic sub-branch of the Nilotic department of the jap Sudanic relations. Of the Nilotic languages in Kenya purely Dholuo, spoken via approximately 2 million humans, belongs to the Western Nilotic workforce. Languages heavily on the topic of it are present in Uganda and the Sudan. Following the theoretical tenets of sensible Grammar, the current quantity is a research with a two-fold goal: First, it units out to supply a descriptively sufficient account of constituent order in Dholuo; secondly, it investigates the potential of delivering such an account with out utilizing transformational ideas within the experience of structure-changing operations.

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Dholuo orclinals, however, require further explanation. In general, the numberof ordinals a language has corresponds one-to-one to the number of its cardinals. Nevertheless languages differ in how they form their ordinals morphologically. In Dholuo, the ordinal 26 Duotuo GRAMMAR corresponding to ‘first’ in English is derived from the verb ltwongo ‘to come first‘ by prefixing the relativizing morpheme ma- to a stem consisting of kwongo and the perfective marker 0-. Thus ma + o + kwongo gives us the word mokwongo ‘first’ after a vowel deletion or assimilation process, for which the interested reader is referred to Odhiambo (1981) andfor Okoth {1977, 1982).

However, when some parents go to a particular teacher's house and say: ' (3) Wadwaro japuonj -it is nomially understood to mean the teacher who lives in that house; and the referent ofjapuonj in this case is understood to be specific. Definiteness based on previous mention is usually marked by the demonstrative morphemes no and eha (and their plural forms go and ka, respectively). Both no and cha correspond to _“that" in English - the former referring to something proximate to the Second Person but not to the First Person, while the latter refers to something not proximate to either the First or Second Person.

G. ‘ Finally, let us make special mention of interrogative adverbs, noting that according to the above categories most, if not all, of them can be classified as predications over propositions. This special mention is accorded to them because many grammarians tend to leave them out of their lists. g. g. (121) Ibiro nena korongio ? (POINT-TIME) Zsg-come see-me when ‘When are you coming to sec me '1" (122) Osebiro ka dfif? g. g. l'cl-cause . ‘ . g. - (125) Ere kaka anyalo yudo pesa kawnono ? 6. ADPOSITIONS Linguistic elements have a certain relationship with the non-linguistic world in which a given language exists.

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A Functional Grammar of Dholuo by Duncan O. Okombo, M. Lionel Bender, Franz Rottland


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