By D. M. Bose, S.N. Sen, B. V. Subbarayappa
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Extra info for A Concise History of Science in India
Besides the Upan#ads mentioned above, some 200 texts bearing the title of this class and attributed to one or the other of the Vedie schools tI Wintcmitz, I, pte I, p. 206. 22 A CONCISE HISTORY OF SCIENCE IN INDIA have come down to us. Most of them having no connection with the Veda are akin to the PuraT)as and the Tantras and belong to a much later date. a Of these several non-Vedic Upani$ads, mention may be made of the Subala Upani~ad, frequently referred to by Ramanuja and the Garbha Upani$ad; the former deals with metaphysics, cosmology, physiology and other matters, whereas the latter, as the title implies, is an embryological text having some importance in the history of medicine.
Recently, Deshpande found three urn burials and one pit burial in Tckwada. Brahmagiri,a Piklihal,b Sanganakallu and Maski c carry the same type of story. Brahmagiri burial grounds, excavated by Wheeler, yielded B. and R. wares, mat-painted red pottery similar to Jorwe type and iron objects. C. At Piklihal, Sanganakallu and Maski, iron objects, in association with copper and sometimes gold, are common in graves as well as habitational sites. The large number of south Indian megalithic or urn burial sites have yielded Black and Red ware, almost uniform types of iron objects-spade.
In its place we find the emergence of a new chalcolithic phase dominated by the use of a variety of copper implements. Several copper hoards-B. B. Lala counted some 37have been discovered in the Doab and in the Chota Nagpu r Hills in Eastern India, of which some important sites include Bahadarabad in Saharanpur district, Rajpur Parsu, Bisauli, Fatehgarh, Santal Parganas, Baragunda, Saguna and others. An interesting point is the association of ochre coloured pottery with the copper hoard culture in these areas, which is now receiving closer investigation.
A Concise History of Science in India by D. M. Bose, S.N. Sen, B. V. Subbarayappa