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By John G. Webster (Editor)

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48 FUSION PLASMAS for comparison, the earth’s magnetic field is on the order of 5 ϫ 10Ϫ5 T. A deuterium plasma ion at 10 keV in a field of 5 T has a gyro radius ȁ3 mm. In a configuration like that shown in the figure, particles would be well-confined in the directions perpendicular to the magnetic field, only crossing field lines as the result of collisions. Unfortunately, this configuration, which could be produced by a simple solenoidal coil, provides no confinement at all in the direction parallel to the magnetic field and hot plasma particles would stream freely out the ends.

For stronger electric fields perturbation methods are no longer applicable and hence more advanced numerical methods have to be used to obtain the correct spectrum. One of the most challenging numerical methods is given by using complex coordinate rotations of the space coordinates in combination with computations of the Hamiltonian matrix. By this method resonances are mapped onto bound states in a complex extension of the state space. In this context the question arises for which electric field strengths perturbation methods are no longer applicable.

Energy confinement times were up to 10 times better than the best stellarator results. Scientists outside the Soviet Union were at first skeptical of the claims; the plasma diagnostics available at the time were rudimentary 49 and the results seemed too good to be true. A second dramatic moment in the development of fusion energy came in 1969 when a team of British scientists traveled to the Kurchatov and used a newly developed laser scattering diagnostic to verify the Russian claims (16). The impact of this measurement rolled over the international fusion community like a thunderclap.

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45.Plasma Science by John G. Webster (Editor)

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